Standard Testing is available for the following analyses on the system of your choice:
SkinAxis evaluates changes in age-related skin markers. Collagen and elastin expressions are evaluated by PCR and immunoblot. Expression of growth factors and cytokines are detected by ELISA, metabolism by luminescence assay, and antioxidant enzymes by colorimetric assays or immunostaining.
- Barrier Function
SkinAxis evaluates the formation of functional barrier as a result of differentiation using protein or RNA expression of specific differentiation markers in 2D or 3D skin models.
- Pigmentation and Brightening
SkinAxis measures melanin synthesis as the total amount of melanin produced in response to the treatment with active ingredient in 2D or 3D skin models using a colorimetric assay. SkinAxis also evaluates tyrosinase expression and activity after treatment with active ingredients for whitening or tanning application using colorimetric assay.
- Epidermal Markers
SkinAxis evaluates expression of specific differentiation markers in 2D or 3D models, inflammatory cytokine release, cell viability and metabolism using the MTT test, ATP content by luminescence assay, and detoxification enzymes by ELISA.
- Dermal Markers
SkinAxis evaluates collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts, MMP activity using colorimetric assays, and MMP expression using PCR or ELISA.
- UV Protection
SkinAxis evaluates morphological changes after UVA or UVB exposure by H&E staining of skin equivalents and DNA damage by immohistochemical staining.
Highly sensitive measurement of DNA damage pathway activation is also available.
- Antioxidant Properties
SkinAxis evaluates enzymes of cell antioxidant defense system by colorimetric assays or immunostaining, ROS formation by antioxidant luminescence assay, and AGE formation following glycation by immunofluorescence or immunoblot.